Thursday, March 12, 2020

Tay Sachs essays

Tay Sachs essays Tay-Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that occurs in children. This disease causes their central nervous system to breakdown, which in turn is the basis for their death. The disease is named for Warren Tay and Bernard Sachs. Tay-Sachs disease is caused by the absence of an enzyme called Hexosamindase A, which is referred to as Hex-A. The lack of this enzyme causes many metabolic problems for its host because it is necessary for breaking down wastes within the brain. The result of its absence is that it causes an increasing loss of coordination, a progressive inability to swallow, breathing difficulties, blindness, mentally retardation, paralysis, and finally death. The enzyme known as Hex-A is extremely essential for a person to sustain life. This is due to the fact that Hex-A is needed for the body to break down a fatty waste substance found in brain cells. This fatty substance or lipid called GM2 ganglioside accumulates abnormally in cells, especially in the nerve cells of the brain. As wastes are constantly collected, there is a progressive damage to the cells. The destructive process begins in the fetus early in pregnancy, although the disease is not clinically apparent until the child is several months old. By the that time a child with the disease is three or four years old and the nervous system is so badly affected that life itself cannot be supported. The information for the body to make the Hex A enzyme is contained in a gene which is found on chromosome number 15. There are two copies of chromosome number 15 in all the body cells and therefore two copies of the gene that codes for the enzyme necessary for correct brain function. If that gene is changed or mutated, which is what happens in the case of Tay-Sachs disease, the information contained in the gene, and therefore the child, is impaired. The genetic error which is present in Tay-Sachs disease is a mutation on the 15th chromosome, which c ...

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

WGST 400 Assignment 3 Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

WGST 400 Assignment 3 - Research Proposal Example The rise of women power was keenly observed in the society prior to the World War I. In Britain, Americas and Canada, growth of women in society happened owing to the changing society and the different waves of political and societal turmoil that threatened to economical stability. Feminism not only grew on the basis of women power, but also on the basis of support from the clergy. Experts commented that women who were being elected at presidential posts in the several societal bodies were making it there because of the backing of their present or deceased husbands. Critics also pointed out in many examples that women tend to be more emotional, violent and often devastating than men, when it comes to collective thinking and individual activity. While these arguments were backed by individual examples, none of them were found to be true for a collective movement of feminism which was always restrained and based on instinctive decision making of some o f the prominent members of the ed ucated women community. In Canada, several feminism waves have been seen in history. As always, it is believed that each of these waves arose as a response to the changes that the society was going through at that point of time. There have been serious pacifist feminism waves in Canada in 1890-1930. Other modern feminism waves seen in Canada belong to the 1960-1975 and 1990 to present eras. Needless to say, pacifism, which depicted peace loving feminism grew out of the oppression that men offered in society. Women realized that instead of acting supportive or resilient to the oppressive nature of men, it would be wise to keep themselves string through a movement that propagates the main goals of societal living as understood best by them. And this included peaceful co-existence and control, devoid of torture, oppression and poverty, something that was welcomed wholeheartedly in the nineteenth century. In Canada, the growth of feminism was in tandem with similar

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Journal entry #8 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Journal entry #8 - Essay Example tween the target language and the learners first language and the other sequenced according to increasing linguistic complexity of target language items† (1984, p. 691). A discussion on the syllabus design based on disparities between L1 and L2 structures were subsequently presented where the author identified that the most difficult phase was learning crucial elements in the target language that were absolutely absent in the student’s native language. Therefore, various guidelines and contributions were presented for syllabus design and proposed development on the complexity of the second language was appropriately delved into. Accordingly, the author noted that â€Å"recent findings from interlanguage research suggest several ways in which attention to certain aspects of traditional approaches to syllabus design-specifically, L1 transfer and L2 complexity-can be used in selecting, sequencing, and grading items for the syllabus† (Pica, 1984, p. 700). The article is most useful for teachers in the development and design of effective syllabus considering disparities and complexities in interlanguage instructions and learning. Through the guidelines provided in the discourse for syllabus design from the noted cross-linguistic research, educators are illumined on instructional approaches and methods that would facilitate teaching a second language more

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Book Report on Farewell to Manzanar Essay Example for Free

Book Report on Farewell to Manzanar Essay In the early year of 1942, the families of Japanese people are being ordered to start a move to Manzanar, California; the Wakatsuki family is one of them. Many Japanese accept the move because they are afraid of Caucasian aggression, but some simply see it as an adventure. Families have to put on identification number tags on their collars. Riding on buses to Manzanar, Jeanne falls asleep on the bus, nearly half of which is filled with her relatives, and wakes up to the â€Å"setting sun and the yellow, billowing dust of Owens Valley. (pg 19) As they enter the camp, the new arrivals stare silently at the families already waiting in the wind and sand. Upon arriving, just in time for dinner, â€Å"the mess halls weren’t completed yet† (pg 19) seeing a line formed around the soon to be finished building blocking a good part of the wind. Only seeing tents and barracks, half built buildings that were unending. There were cracks in the floors, only one light bulb per room, gaps in the walls, an oil stove for heat, and not very much space at all. â€Å"We were assigned two of these for the twelve people in our family group. † (pg. 1) With all the confined spacing for the families, you can tell there was a lot of tension between everyone. The food they had made for us to eat was not in our culture at all. â€Å"The Caucasian servers were thinking that the fruit poured over rice would make a good desert. Among the Japanese, of course, rice is never eaten with sweet foods, only with salty or savory foods. † (pg. 20) On top of the food being served wrong, their latrines were not very useable. â€Å"The smell of it spoiled what little appetite we had. † (pg. 31) â€Å"My mother was a very modest person, and this was going to be agony for her, sitting down in public, among strangers.   (pg. 32). What some of the other women did was drag in a big cardboard carton and put up as walls so no one could see. The reservoir shack was just outside of camp. â€Å"My brother-in-law Kaz was foreman of a reservoir maintenance detail, the only crew permitted to work or to leave the camp limits the night of the riot. † (pg. 78) The guys that were on this detail slept on cots in a shack. When they turned off the lights in the shack at night and everyone was laying down it was so dark that you couldn’t see anyone or anything in the shack.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Poker Competition Essay -- Gambling Card Games Essays

Poker Competition If the appeal in competition is not just profit, but knowing that the profit came from another’s loss, then it is no surprise that certain â€Å"zero-sum games† dominate our world and culture. Poker is a perfect example of this American fascination with capitalism and despotic schadenfreude. This is because poker, just like any other zero-sum game, requires success and failure to be mutually inclusive. While poker is not quite in the realm of pure gambling and is not quite in the realm of pure skill, it successfully stands irresolute in the middle of it all with its ambiguous classification appealing to nearly every subset of our society. The diversity in its players is reflected in the innumerable Internet resources on the subject: sites that appeal to the gambler—downloadable interfaces to transform card room leisure into a domestic dalliance; sites that cater to mathematicians, economists and computer scientists in pursuit of new insights into AI programmi ng and game theory; as well as sites for the serious card player (whom should never be referred to as a gambler as this connotes a certain unacceptable level of skill!) covering the gambit of topics from poker psychology to personalized poker chips. Each poker-related website reflects this diversity of audience with respective varieties in style and information, but three specific sites aptly and obviously categorize players into the academic, the leisurely, and the professional. Respectively, they are: University of Alberta’s Poker Research Group, Yahoo! Games – Poker, and Two Plus Two Publishing. The University of Alberta has set out on the moderately ambitious task of designing a poker-playing computer that can beat the world’s best human player. T... ... card player and it is perfectly designed for that aim. It is not surprising that poker appeals to such a wide range of individuals or that poker sites have been created around their differences. This can be seen in all modes of competitive sport and poker is no exception. There is a contextual similarity in these sites that reflects a commonality in all poker players: win at all costs. The AI website clearly states that it exists with the intent of beating the world’s best player, visitors to Two Plus Two perpetually debate why his or her particular strategy is the most valuable, and even the novice player, when learning the rules of the game, is taught foremost to be a good bluffer (liar). These websites each uniquely capture the modus operandi of the poker player, the Machiavellian spirit of Vidal’s introductory quote, that simply winning is never enough.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Is College Worth the Costs? Essay

â€Å"Higher education can’t be a luxury, it’s an economic imperative that every family in America should be able to afford.† These are the words spoken on the 2012 campaign trail by president Barack Obama, on the importance of higher education. The cost for a college education is a big conversation in many American homes, as well as in Washington. Families are deciding if they will be able to send their children to college due the high and rising cost of a college degree. Sadly, some of them are choosing to bypass college because they believe that the price is too high. Those who believe college is no longer worth the money think the risk of not finding a job is too high, the amount of debt incurred is ridiculous, and the financial effects on the economy are devastating. Although many of these points are true, college graduates tend to live longer, happier lives, are in better financial standing, and fill the critical demands of skilled professions. College tuition prices have increased rapidly over the past few decades, putting a damper on the idea of attending. In the last decade alone, tuition and room and board prices have increased by 23% at private institutions, and 36% at public ones (Mandel 1). It’s to be expected that since the price of almost of everything has increased the last decade due to the economy, that education would too. But, the hike in the price of college tuition has surpassed inflation, making it difficult for almost all middle class Americans to finance a higher education. The argument, though, is not if families can afford to send their children to college; it’s if they believe that a college education is still worth the high cost it entails. Despite the increases in education costs, higher education is still important, though it may be harder to obtain. The risky job market is a reason students are choosing to bypass college. Along with high tuition prices, the job market for recent graduates is unstable. In the previous 2012 presidential election, a big topic in the live debates were that recent college graduates were unable to find jobs in their field, and if they did, most of the time they were most of the time,  underpaid. This is a scary situation that graduates hope they never have to deal with. New graduates are hoping for a solid job upon graduating from college to pay for their previous four years, and to start their careers and lives. The problem can be summarized by the statement, â€Å"Indeed, 60 percent of the increased college graduate population between 1992 and 2008 ended up in these lower skilled jobs, raising real questions about the desirability of pushing to increase the proportion of Americans attending and graduating from four year colleges and universities† (Duke 3). If graduating from college means spending thousands of dollars to end up with the same job you would have if you didn’t go to college, people are asking, â€Å"what is the point?† More people are starting to realize this, and though students are still attending college, they are thinking hard about the possible risk of not getting the job of their choice after graduating. Sadly, some of them are turning down college because of the worry of not being able to find a job. Of course there are risks with every decision someone makes, and by attending college one is at risk of not finding a open position in their field and having to settle for something less. But there are also risks of not attending college. These risk include the health and well-being of one’s self. Whether or not one finds the right job after graduating, the education and skills acquired still stays throughout their life. This involves learning and practicing healthy habits. Studies have shown that those who earn college degrees are more likely to live happier healthier lives than those who don’t. A report done by the Commission on Heath stated â€Å"that those with more education are likely to live longer, experience better health outcomes, and practice healthy behaviors like exercise, avoiding smoking, and getting regular checkups† (â€Å"The Happy State† 7). Those who are highly educated, have learned the importance of health and wellness, and usually live lives that reflect that. Living a healthier life includes: living longer, seeking more prosperous relationships, and having better community connections. Pew Research on Social and Demographic Trends, found that those who have graduated college are significantly happier than those will a high school diploma or less (â€Å"Are We Happy Yet?†). So although the risk of not finding a job after graduating is very real, one should consider the  risk of not attending school. Unfortunately, people tend to think more about wealth and not health when deciding whether or not to pursue a college degree. Students are accumulating massive debt, causing some to believe a higher education is not worth the large loans they are forced to take out. With higher tuition bills, students are have to take out more loans, leaving them with a large debt to pay after graduating. In 2012, the average loan debt for college graduates was $27,000, which is more than double from five years ago (Ross 7). No one wants to start their careers with an overwhelming amount of loan debt. Therefore, many students are justified in skipping college to jump straight into a job where the money they will be making will not have to go toward paying off school debt. A $27,000 debt upon graduating is not usually a selling point for prospective students deciding if attending college is a smart decision. To help cut down on the amount of loans one has to take out, universities are generous with financial aid. A majority of students earn some sort of financial aid, whether it be academic or need based. These financial grants and scholarships can significantly reduce the amount of money needed to finance a college education. In a study done on Dickinson College, in 2007 the average discount rate for first-years was 30 percent. It was also states that the average at liberal arts colleges is 40 percent (Massa and Parker 94). So, even though the students are forced to take out more loans to pay for college, obtaining financial aid by doing well in high school can reduce the amount needed to pay for college. Along with cutting down on expenses by taking advantage of financial aid awards, earning more money in a lifetime is a smart reason to go to college. College graduates make significantly more money in their lifetime. Though many high school graduates are eager to start making money, investing time and money into a college degree will end up being a bigger pay out in the end. The amount of money earned in a lifetime with a degree exceeds the amount of loans that one owes. According to the research done, â€Å"college graduates earn, on average, about $20,000 a year more than those who  finished their educations at high school. Add that up over a 40-year working life and the total differential is about $800,000[†¦]† (Clark 3). Even though there are rare cases where students end up making a large amount of money without a college degree, like Microsoft founder Bill Gates, the chances of one finding a high paying job without a college education is slim. So even though incurring debt is unattractive, the amount of money earned by obtaining a college degree is worth having to pay back college loans. An effect of borrowing so much money from the government and not finding a decent job, students are not able to make loan payments. This not only hurts the students but the economy as a whole. When graduates are not able to pay back the money they owe, the federal government suffers and loses money. The â€Å"delinquencies† of student loans is now higher than credit cards, mortgages, and all other kinds of consumer loans. The federal Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has stated that student debt has surpassed $1 trillion (Coy 1). As the economy incurs more of this debt, taxpayers are forced to pay more. This issue has greatly impacted not only students and their families, but the older generations. Other generations now believe that students are not able to pay their school debt, convincing them that college is not worth the enormous amount of debt that affects not only the graduates. Although it is true that defaulted loans hurt the economy, the nation still needs skilled employees with college degrees to fill critical professions. These graduates play a big role in the furthering of society. It is no new information most people believe a college education is the first step in becoming successful. Many believe an education opens doors and opportunities in the world to become prosperous. In fact, President Obama has greatly promoted higher education during his terms. He even donated most of his $1.4 million Nobel Peace Prize Award to support those who cannot afford a college education (Beaver 21). America needs higher educated people to make advancements in technology, medicine, and relations. Imagine for a moment that everyone decided that a college education was not worth it. Yes, the economy would not acquire as much debt, but who would continue to make  advancements in science, treat the sick, or deal with foreign nations? Nations around the world are competing with the United States academically; as a result of this, countries like China, are making strides economically and technologically, competing with the U.S. as the worlds largest super power. A economic crisis like the one the United States is in now requires highly skilled professionals and leaders to make smart and effective decisions to better the country. These professionals are produced through higher education and knowledge. Without college graduates, there is no hope for bettering society. So, is college worth the costs? Many skeptical people believe that today it isn’t. Because of the risky job market, where recent college graduates are not able to find a job, or at least one in their field of study, students have chosen to skip college. Also, students are finding themselves struggling to afford the high tuition prices of most universities. The high tuition bills force students to rely on loans to pay for a degree, and when they cannot find jobs to pay back those loans, they default on those loans hurting themselves and the economy. These reasons have caused families to rethink attending college, and although they are legitimate reasons, there are still important reasons as to why college is worth the investment. It has been shown that those with a college education live happier, healthier lives. Graduates make significantly more money in a lifetime and are more financially stable. Lastly, people with higher education are essential for the country. Their knowledge makes the advancements needed to maintain a prosperous nation. Health, money, and social progression is why investment of a college education is worth the cost, even if the price is high. Works Cited Beaver, William. â€Å"Do We Need More College Graduates?.† Society 47.4 (2010): 308-311. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. Clark, Kim. â€Å"How Much Is That College Degree Really Worth?† US News. U.S.News & World Report, 30 Oct. 2008. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. â€Å"College Grads Happier.†Pew Social Demographic Trends RSS. Pew Research Center, 3 Nov. 2010. Web. 02 Dec. 2013. Coy, Peter. â€Å"The Needless Tragedy Of Student Loan Defaults.† Businessweek.Com (2012): 3. Business Source Complete. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. Duke, Selwyn. â€Å"DIPLOMA DISASTER? (Cover Story).† New American (08856540) 29.15 (2013): 10-15. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. Mandel, Michael. â€Å"College: Rising Costs, Diminishing Returns.† Businessweek 4148 (2009): 20. Business Source Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. Massa, Robert J., and Annette S. Parker. â€Å"Fixing the Net Tuition Revenue Dilemma: The Dickinson College Story.†Strategic Financial Challenges for Higher Education: How to Achieve Quality, Accountability, and Innovation. By Donna Klinger and Lucie Lapovsky. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008. 93-94. Print. Ross, Andrew. â€Å"Mortgaging The Future: Student Debt In The Age Of Austerity.† New Labor Forum (Murphy Institute) 22.1 (2013): 23-28. Business Source Complete. Web. 31 Oct. 2013. â€Å"The Happy State of College Graduates.†-. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Financial analysis of British Telecom, BP and Nike - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2794 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Title: Brief for website content The brief contains summaries of corporate activities of lead multinational companies that has successfully operated their businesses worldwide and now take effective measures to withstand the adverse affects of the global financial crisis. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of British Telecom, British Petroleum and Nike are analyzed to provide a clear insight into the companies business operations, and challenges they currently face. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Financial analysis of British Telecom, BP and Nike" essay for you Create order Three short success stories describing Nike, HSBC, and Shell successes serve as case-study examples of strong global competitors that manage their multinational activities regardless the challenges of the global financial crisis. 1. SWOT analysis of British Telecom (BT) Strengths BT (a BT Group plc subsidiary) is the UKs lead broadband Internet provider and fixed line telecommunications operator that: Provides global telecommunication services in more than 170 countries worldwide; Participates in London and New York Stock Exchange and is listed in the FTSE 100 Index; Provides most British fixed-line telephones with local loop and trunk network connections, and telephone exchanges; Operates more than 28 million UK telephone lines; Owns largest nationwide telecom coverage and penetration; On the basis of Universal Service Obligation, provides public call boxes fixed telephone lines nationwide; Extends communication operations on global markets through acquisition and re-branding of the domestic and overseas businesses, specifically: BT Infonet, 2005; BT Radianz, 2006; Dabs.com, 2006; PlusNet plc, 2007; International Network Services Inc, 2007; Comsat International, 2007; Wire One Communications, 2008; and Ribbit, 2008. Invests in new Internet Protocol century network 21CN. Weaknesses BT main weaknesses are associated with the following factors: Underdevelopment of mobile business and lack of fixed-mobile convergence; Lack of business strategy towards the promotion of cheap voice calls; Occasional payphone problem due to BT operations; General complaints about customer services provided by BT. Opportunities Transition to the new century network (21CN) in 2010 including the transfer of half of its customers by 2008; Expansion to more profitable products and services that are less regulated; Emphasis on telecommunications and IT solutions and broadband internet services; Extension of BT Tradespace online service platform to serve small businesses; Advancement of BT Vision to provide high-quality broadband television services; Expansion of Internet smart-phone services. Expansion of services on highly-dynamic UK telecom market and internationally; Contracting more overseas partners to further its global expansion; Threats Fierce competition from BTs main rivals: Carphone Warehouse; Google; O2; Orange and Vodafone); Global financial crisis; Workforce and management shortages in BT core business divisions, including retail, wholesale, Openreach, and BT Global Services); Overall increase of redemptions; Potential risk for BT bond markets; Fund management crisis with 6.6 b. slumps; Operating markets liquidity; Recent behavioural targeting scandal; Inability to foresee the successfulness of long-term projects considering current economic fluctuations. 2. SWOT analysis of British Petroleum (BP) Strengths BP is ranked at the worlds 3rd largest energy company and is positioned as a multinational oil company headquartered in London that: Operates petrochemical businesses worldwide through the network of its subsidiaries and retail brands(Amoco; ARCO; BP Express, BP Connect; BP Travel Centre; ampm; Burmah Castrol etc) Participates in London Stock Exchange, IPO in New York Stock Exchange. and is listed in the FTSE 100 Index; BP Amoco strong brand loyalty for oil; Strong brand management driven by the Beyond Petroleum slogan. BO Q3 net profit increase by 83% due to record oil and gas prices. The indicator amounts to $53.43 per share compared to $21.27 during the same period in 2007. Weaknesses Launch of controversial business with the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline; Increase in petrol prices in the UK; Explosion of BP refinery in Texas that caused 100 injuries and 15 deaths in 2005; Criminal charges due to the spread of 270.000 gallons of crude oil in the Alaskan tundra in 2006; Toxic spill of 2,000 gallons of methanol in the oil field (Prudhoe Bay) managed by BP. Closing of Alaskan oil wells. Opportunities 8 b. USD investment in the research of alternative fuel methods, including hydrogen, natural gas, wind and solar over the forthcoming decade; Expansion of frontier areas suitable for BPs future reserves (post-Soviet Union territories); Extension of strategic oil and gas acquisitions in North Sea area; Launch of more flexible price policy to compete main rivals; Threats Environmentally unsound policies due to oil and toxic spills; Occasional refinery explosions; Corrosion in pipelines; Competition from Shell and Chevron Ceasing operations in a number of potential locations with their further re-branding (Conoco); Sale of corporate-owned stations; More than 5.000 shortages within coming months; $66,71 per barrel creates considerable tensions for running oil business; Further lawsuits considering the companys ecological activities; 3. SWOT analysis of Nike Strengths Nike, Inc is listed in NYSE and positioned as a US headquartered worldwide sportswear trader and supplier that: Contracts with about 700 shops worldwide, runs offices in 45 countries, and manages factories in China, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, India, Vietnam, Philippines, Pakistan, and Malaysia. Belongs to Fortune 500 companies which 2007 total revenue exceeded 16 b. USD Employs more than 30.000 people worldwide; Owns strong marketing strategy under Nike brand that assumes the involvement of world top-class athletes and sportsmen in Nikes Just do it advertising campaigns; Operates a chain of Niketown retail stores; Leads its international business operations through acquisitions and re-branding: Converse Inc, 2003; Starter athletic clothing, 2004; Umbro, 2008; Nikes premium brand is used to manufacture and promote a wide variety of products for all types of sport-oriented and leisure activities; Manages the US premier training program SPARQ Training Program; Applies lunarlite foam and flywire materials to reduce the weight of manufactured shoes Weaknesses Unwilling to disclose information concerning its partnering companies, which caused harsh criticism from CorpWatch and other companies; Contracts factories in Vietnam, China, Mexico, Indonesia; Violated overtime laws minimum wage rates and in Vietnam, 1996 Provides poor working conditions, and tends to exploit cheap workforce overseas, especially in free trade zones where; Some of Nikes ads are associated with US female empowerment; In 1990s, Nike was reported to apply child labor in Pakistan and Cambodia to produce soccer balls; Contracts overseas companies that apply non-transparent and inadequate labor regulations, involving child labor. Positioned as a permanent subject of criticism by anti-globalization groups; Forced Labour applications in partnering apparel factories in Malaysia, involving forced Labour and poor living conditions. Opportunities Producing sportswear products from manufacturing waste; Extension of eco-friendly projects like Reuse-A-Shoe Program aimed at further recycling; Emphasis on corporate marketing strategy through the promotion of corporate brand and sponsorship agreements; Threats Textile industry adversely affects the environment, and therefore the company is permanently striving to maintain its eco-friendly reputation; Financial crisis may lead to job shortages in a number of Nikes worldwide subsidiaries; The company has experienced negative publicity feedbacks due to its extensive advertising in mass media (Kasky v. Nike; Minor Threat at; Beatles song; Chinese-themed at, Horror ad etc). 1. Nike short case study The key reasons for the success of Nike are associated with its global brand promotion. Due to its extensive advertising campaigns the Nikes brand is known in almost every household worldwide. Considering the major revenue increase over the last decade, the company has proved its popularity and high demand for its products among people. Nikes brand management strategy as a key of its global success is based on the sponsorship agreements with the world-class athletes, including individual performers and sport clubs. Mainly all kinds of sportswear equipment are branded with Nikes logo which reminds people of success and associates it with the achievements of star performers. In such a way, Nike not only expands its corporate image worldwide, but also enhances the healthy lifestyle and devotion to sport activities. Unfortunately, despite million-dollar promotional and advertising campaigns, the original Nikes products remain unavailable to most people worldwide. The price for individual items is rather high and so the overwhelming majority of purchasers buy franchise copies holding Nikes logo. However, this is one of the justified and reasonable business strategies applied under the conditions of globalization. In the recent years, Nike was reported to apply unfair working practices, involving child labour, insufficient working conditions, under-standard wages etc. In addition to this, the company was subject to legal claims for unfair public campaigns associate with the advertisement of corporate brand. Therefore, Nikes further business success necessitates changes and reconsideration of its business strategies. To this end, recently Nike has ceased its irrelevant practices and tries to lead socially and environmentally responsible business operations. It also comes as no surprise that the company constantly challenges anti-globalization claims. To this end the company should emphasise on transparent practices, considering human rights and social concerns. In this respect, the company should regain the image of more socially-oriented player on a global scale. Therefore, Nikes management is fully aware that large corporate revenues gained from multinational operations should be combined with socially-oriented projects aimed at recycling and environmental campaigns. In the foreseeable future, Nikes facing great opportunities backed up with the companys 2008 financial success. The company will continue to implement its corporate projects and programmes to suit the demand and social needs of its worldwide customers. Though, the main emphasis will be put on promotions and so new sponsorship agreements will be concluded with the rising stars. It is rather difficult to predict corporate challenges to be faced by the company considering the overall adverse affects of global financial crisis. Most likely, as many other multinational businesses, Nike will close its subsidiary offices in a number of countries and/or shorten manufacturing rates in Asia. Overall, it is apparent that Nike has a solid potential background to hold strong competitive stance in the foreseeable future. Hopefully, in terms of further business orientation strategy, the company will become more socially responsible in the eyes of average consumers, and so the availability of its brand products will further increase. 2. HSBC short case study The key reasons for the success of HSBC (the worlds largest banking group since 2005) are associated with its reputable banking brand. Compared to its main rivals, in times of financial crisis HSBC continues to lead its conventional strategy aimed at risk-averse approach to manage business operations. HSBC group is solid and well-acclaimed banking operator that smartly manages worldwide assets, sales and market value, and therefore is ranked as the worlds most profitable bank. HSBC success is also to the Groups strong presence on international lead financial markets with the significant business shares therein. HSBC multinational banking and financial operations are backed up by 330.000 employees working in 85 countries, 210.000 shareholders, and 128 m. customers worldwide. These figures indicate the unprecedented international presence of HSBC. HSBC runs a number of operative systems to assure its global successfulness. In particular, HSBCnet is the Groups global service that coordinates local business needs and offers functional services to the operating spots worldwide. At that, both corporate and individual customers obtain access to banking transactions, trade services, exchange operations and money trading services. In addition to this, HSBCnet is widely applied as the marketing tool to promote the Banks e-commerce services. At present, HSBC mainly focuses on the four main areas of operation: Global banking markets expansion; Private banking; Personal financial services; and Commercial banking Recently, the Group has faced a number of challenges. The most controversial are associated with HSBC technical management. Its inappropriateness led to customer data leak, though the missing data did not produce the scandalous effect overall. Last year, many students protested against HSBC withdrawal of interest-free overdrafts, though eventually the suffered charges were fully repaid by the Group. These challenges prove that any, even the largest banking group, may become subject to threat, though the successful management of critical situation has always been a particular feature of HSBC worldwide operation. In the coming future, HSBC will concentrate on the strategic and prioritized areas of its worldwide operation with the further emphasis on HR management strategies and technologically-advanced applications within the group. Namely there two factors enable HSBC to provide top-quality services and win more international markets. Specifically, new security systems will be operated to avoid further leaks of information. More than 330.000 staff permanently requires a solid ground for professional improvement and therefore HSBC will further expand professional training and development programs for its employees. In light of the ongoing financial crisis, HSBC is not going to apply the 25b. Fund unveiled by the UK government to save the countrys banking system. This approach is entirely different from those currently led by the Groups from its main rivals. Conversely, HSBC intends to lend 750 m. to reinforce the UK capital base. With this purpose, over the last four years the bank has provided loans to help other UK banks. 3. Shell short case study The key reasons for the success of Shell Oil Company are associated with the oil majors multinational oil business operations backed up by more than 22.000 staff and the consolidated companies. Shells main business direction is natural gas production, petrochemical, gasoline and natural gas marketing. At that, Shell leads the market through the network of its branded gas stations exceeding 25.000 in the US alone. This ensures the corporation solid public presence. On an international scale, Shell partners with Saudi Aramco to jointly operate refineries. With the help of its partners (Chevron) and subsidiaries (Aera Energy LLC; Motiva Enterprises), Shell expands strategic drills in offshore locations; produces fuels, oils, and explores, produces, and refines petroleum products. Furthermore, Shell Oil Company has always associated its success with the high-quality workforce regarded as its most invaluable asset. The corporation therefore invests solid funds into the improvement of professional capacity of it enormous staff and attempts to implement flexible working practices as far as possible. Overall, the company pays competitive dividends, and makes considerable investments to ensure the companys profitability. Recently, Shell faced serious ecological challenges considering the reports of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In connection with the Notice of Violation, Shell violated the Clean Air Act in 1998. At that, within a week 28.4 m. gallons of gasoline were released in the air without the compulsory vapor recovery equipment. This resulted in 56 t. hazardous emissions in the atmosphere. Another accusation was related to the illegal construction of loading bay without the allowance from the State Department of Environmental Protection. In accordance with the most recent 2008 lawsuit launched against Shell, the company allegedly violated Clean Air Act. Therefore, the company is seriously challenged with the environmental concerns, including sulfur dioxide emissions, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide emissions; emissions of nitrogen oxides. In addition to this, Shell operations are reported to produce adverse affects to the vast majority of migratory birds community due to drilling operations North Sea. Taking these and other facts into account, Shell should reconsider its environmental policies and limit hazardous effects to the surrounding environment in the foreseeable future. Considering the effects of the spreading financial crisis, Shell is prone to take certain measures to keep a competitive pace. For Shell, as well as other major oil players, the overall situation is intensified by the oil reserve crisis. Since the prices per barrel have substantially decreased, Shell should smartly coordinate its price policy and spot the current tendencies on global markets. The current situation is such that in light of the financial crisis, energy prices are plunging and force oil companies to delay their projects and scale back spending. Therefore, major oil players like Shell are expecting the soonest moderation of the industry costs. As many oil players, Shell is leading well-balanced business strategy to foresee further economic fluctuations and win competitive advantage. Most importantly, the company is becoming less environmentally hazardous and only this factor may assure the company high publicity and brand promotion in the near future. Overall, the briefs enabled to analyze the current business situation of some lead multinational players that are currently expanding their global markets. In most cases, their business success is associated with sound brand management and international expansion through partnerships, mergers and acquisitions, and re-branding. At that, the companies tend to emphasize on the cutting-edge technologies and human factor as their main asset while managing enormous workforce internationally. On the other hand, however, mainly all companies have recently been subject to serious claims and lawsuits associated with the lack of social responsibility, and most importantly, unsound environmentally-based policies. Now, it is high time these internationally acclaimed brands reconsidered their environmental and social-oriented policies and made them more transparent and sufficient. Furthermore, the ongoing financial crisis places additional challenges to these multinational players. Overall this indicates the uncertainty of future forecasts and corporate strategies intended even for the short-term periods. At that, it is apparent that the revenue rates and financial stability of the abovementioned brands have not suffered during the third quarter of 2008.